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Sub-Saharan Africa currently emits small amounts of greenhouse gases by global standards - if only fossil fuels are taken into account. But agriculture and deforestation today contribute significant amounts. Moreover, population and economic growth will lead to rising emissions in the future. At the same time, economic development is key to alleviate poverty and, raising trade-offs with environmental stewardship. Climate policy instruments must be regionally tailored to accommodate local emission patterns and development needs - and may therefore differ from instruments in the North.