How to ensure full vaccination? The association of institutional delivery and timely postnatal care with childhood vaccination in a cross-sectional study in rural Bihar, India
Incomplete and absent doses in routine childhood vaccinations are of major concern. Health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), in particular, often struggle to enable full vaccination of children, which affects their immunity against communicable diseases. Data on child vaccination cards from a cross-sectional primary survey with 1,967 households were used to assess the vaccination status. The association of timely postnatal care (PNC) and the place of delivery with any-dose (at least one dose of each vaccine) and full vaccination of children between 10-20 months in Bihar, India, was investigated. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. The vaccines included targeted tuberculosis, hepatitis B, polio, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT) and measles. Moreover predictors for perinatal health care uptake were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Of the 1,011 children with card verification, 47.9% were fully vaccinated. Timely PNC was positively associated with full vaccination (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.08) and with the administration of at least one dose (any-dose) of polio vaccine (aOR 3.37 95% CI 1.79-6.36), hepatitis B/pentavalent vaccine (aOR 2.11 95% CI 1.24-3.59), and DPT/pentavalent vaccine (aOR 2.29 95% CI 1.35-3.88). Additionally, delivery in a public health care facility was positively associated with at least one dose of hepatitis B/pentavalent vaccine administration (aOR 4.86 95% CI 2.97-7.95). Predictors for timely PNC were institutional delivery (public and private) (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.96-3.72, aOR 2.38 95% CI 1.56-3.64), at least one ANC visit (aOR 1.59 95% CI 1.18-2.15), wealth quintile (Middle aOR 1.57 95% CI 1.02-2.41, Richer aOR 1.51 95% CI 1.01-2.25, Richest aOR 2.06 95% CI 1.28-3.31) and household size (aOR 0.95 95% CI 0.92-0.99). The findings indicate a correlation between childhood vaccination and timely postnatal care. Further, delivery in a public facility correlates with the administration of at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine and thus impedes zero-dose vaccination. Increasing uptake of timely PNC, encouraging institutional delivery, and improving vaccination services before discharge of health facilities may lead to improved vaccination rates among children.
Schön, M., E. Heesemann, C. Ebert, M. Subramanyam, M. Subramaniam, S. Vollmer and S. Horn (2022), How to ensure full vaccination? The association of institutional delivery and timely postnatal care with childhood vaccination in a cross-sectional study in rural Bihar, India. PLOS Global Public Health, 2, 5, e0000411